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NASA Data And New Techniques Yield Detailed Views Of Solar Storms



Aug. 18, 2011

Dwayne Brown                                
Headquarters, Washington                           
202-358-1726 
dwayne.c.brown@xxxxxxxx 


RELEASE: 11-270

NASA DATA AND NEW TECHNIQUES YIELD DETAILED VIEWS OF SOLAR STORMS

WASHINGTON -- NASA spacecraft observations and new data processing 
techniques are giving scientists better insight into the evolution 
and development of solar storms that can damage satellites, disrupt 
communications and cause power grid failures on Earth. 

The solar storms, called Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs), are being 
observed from NASA's twin Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory, or 
STEREO, spacecraft launched in 2006. The duo represents a key 
component within a fleet of NASA spacecraft that enhance the 
capability to predict solar storms. 

Previous spacecraft imagery did not clearly show the structure of a 
solar disturbance as it traveled toward Earth. As a result, 
forecasters had to estimate when storms would arrive without knowing 
the details of how they evolve and grow. New processing techniques 
used on STEREO data allow scientists to see how solar eruptions 
develop into space storms at the Earth. 

"The clarity these new images provide will improve the observational 
inputs into space weather models for better forecasting," said Lika 
Guhathakurta, STEREO program scientist at NASA Headquarters in 
Washington. 

CMEs are billion-ton clouds of solar plasma launched by the same sun 
explosions that spark solar flares. When they sweep past Earth, they 
can cause auroras, radiation storms that can disrupt sensitive 
electronics on satellites, and in extreme cases, power outages. 
Better tracking of these clouds and the ability to predict their 
arrival is an important part of space weather forecasting. 

Newly released images from cameras on the STEREO-A spacecraft reveal 
detailed features in a large Earth-directed CME in late 2008, 
connecting the original magnetized structure in the sun's corona to 
the intricate anatomy of the interplanetary storm as it hit the 
planet three days later. When the data were collected, the spacecraft 
was more than 65 million miles away from Earth. 

The spacecraft's wide-angle cameras captured the images. They detect 
ordinary sunlight scattered by free-floating electrons in plasma 
clouds. When these clouds in CMEs leave the sun, they are bright and 
easy to see. However, visibility is quickly reduced, as the clouds 
expand into the void. The clouds are about one thousand times fainter 
than the Milky Way, which makes direct imaging of them difficult. 
That also has limited our understanding of the connection between 
solar storms and the coronal structures that cause them. 

"Separating these faint signals from the star field behind them proved 
especially challenging, but it paid off," said Craig DeForest, 
scientist at the Southwest Research Institute in Boulder, Colo. and 
lead author of an Astrophysical Journal article released online 
yesterday. "We have been drawing pictures of structures like these 
for several decades. Now that we can see them so far from the sun, we 
find there is still a lot to learn." 

These observations can pinpoint not only the arrival time of the CME, 
but also its mass. The brightness of the cloud enabled researchers to 
calculate the cloud's gas density throughout the structure, and 
compare it to direct measurements by other NASA spacecraft. When this 
technique is applied to future storms, forecasters will be able to 
say with confidence whether Earth is about to be hit by a small or 
large cloud, and where on the sun the material originated. 

STEREO's two observatories orbit the sun, one ahead of Earth and one 
behind. They will continue to move apart over time. STEREO is the 
third mission in NASA's Solar Terrestrial Probes program. The program 
seeks to understand the fundamental physical processes of the space 
environment from the sun to Earth and other planets. 

The STEREO spacecraft were built and are operated for NASA by the 
Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory in Laurel, Md. 
NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md., manages the 
mission, instruments and science center. The STEREO instruments were 
designed and built by scientific institutions in the U.S., UK, 
France, Germany, Belgium, Netherlands, and Switzerland. 

For more information and images, visit: 



http://www.nasa.gov/sunearth 


For more information about the STEREO mission and instruments, visit: 



http://stereo.gsfc.nasa.gov/ 

	
-end-



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