Re: [PATCH] slub: prevent validate_slab() error due to race condition

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On Thu, 2012-04-26 at 14:57 -0400, Waiman Long wrote:
> The SLUB memory allocator was changed substantially from 3.0 to 3.1 by
> replacing some of page locking codes for updating the free object list
> of the slab with double-quadword atomic exchange (cmpxchg_double_slab)
> or a pseudo one using a page lock when debugging is turned on.  In the
> normal case, that should be enough to make sure that the slab is in a
> consistent state. However, when CONFIG_SLUB_DEBUG is turned on and the
> Redzone debugging flag is set, the Redzone bytes are also used to mark
> if an object is free or allocated. The extra state information in those
> Redzone bytes is not protected by the cmpxchg_double_slab(). As a
> result,
> validate_slab() may report a Redzone error if the validation is
> performed
> while racing with a free to a debugged slab.
> 
> The problem was reported in
> 
> 	https://bugzilla.kernel.org/show_bug.cgi?id=42312
> 
> It is fairly easy to reproduce by passing in the kernel parameter of
> "slub_debug=FZPU".  After booting, run the command (as root):
> 
> 	while true ; do ./slabinfo -v ; sleep 3 ; done
> 
> The slabinfo test code can be found in tools/vm/slabinfo.c.
> 
> At the same time, load the system with heavy I/O activities by, for
> example, building the Linux kernel. The following kind of dmesg messages
> will then be reported:
> 
> 	BUG names_cache: Redzone overwritten
> 	SLUB: names_cache 3 slabs counted but counter=4
> 
> This patch fixes the BUG message by acquiring the node-level lock for
> slabs flagged for debugging to avoid this possible racing condition.
> The locking is done on the node-level lock instead of the more granular
> page lock because the new code may speculatively acquire the node-level
> lock later on. Acquiring the page lock and then the node lock may lead
> to potential deadlock.
> 
> As the increment of slab node count and insertion of the new slab into
> the partial or full slab list is not an atomic operation, there is a
> small time window where the two may not match. This patch temporarily
> works around this problem by allowing the node count to be one larger
> than the number of slab presents in the lists. This workaround may not
> work if more than one CPU is actively adding slab to the same node,
> but it should be good enough to workaround the problem in most cases.
> 
> To really fix the issue, the overall synchronization between debug slub
> operations and slub validation needs a revisit.
> 
> This patch also fixes a number of "code indent should use tabs where
> possible" error reported by checkpatch.pl in the __slab_free() function
> by replacing groups of 8-space tab by real tabs.
> 
> After applying the patch, the slub error and warnings are all gone in
> the 4-CPU x86-64 test machine.
> 
> Signed-off-by: Waiman Long <waiman.long@xxxxxx>
> Reviewed-by: Don Morris <don.morris@xxxxxx>
> ---
>  mm/slub.c |   46 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++-------------
>  1 files changed, 33 insertions(+), 13 deletions(-)
> 
> diff --git a/mm/slub.c b/mm/slub.c
> index ffe13fd..4ca3140 100644
> --- a/mm/slub.c
> +++ b/mm/slub.c
> @@ -2445,8 +2445,18 @@ static void __slab_free(struct kmem_cache *s, struct page *page,
>  
>  	stat(s, FREE_SLOWPATH);
>  
> -	if (kmem_cache_debug(s) && !free_debug_processing(s, page, x, addr))
> -		return;
> +	if (kmem_cache_debug(s)) {
> +		/*
> +		 * We need to acquire the node lock to prevent spurious error
> +		 * with validate_slab().
> +		 */
> +		n = get_node(s, page_to_nid(page));
> +		spin_lock_irqsave(&n->list_lock, flags);
> +		if (!free_debug_processing(s, page, x, addr)) {
> +			spin_unlock_irqrestore(&n->list_lock, flags);
> +			return;
> +		}

		missing spin_unlock_irqrestore(&n->list_lock, flags); ?

> +	}
>  
>  	do {
>  		prior = page->freelist;
> @@ -2467,7 +2477,7 @@ static void __slab_free(struct kmem_cache *s, struct page *page,
>  
>  			else { /* Needs to be taken off a list */
>  
> -	                        n = get_node(s, page_to_nid(page));
> +				n = get_node(s, page_to_nid(page));
>  				/*
>  				 * Speculatively acquire the list_lock.
>  				 * If the cmpxchg does not succeed then we may
> @@ -2501,10 +2511,10 @@ static void __slab_free(struct kmem_cache *s, struct page *page,
>  		 * The list lock was not taken therefore no list
>  		 * activity can be necessary.
>  		 */
> -                if (was_frozen)
> -                        stat(s, FREE_FROZEN);
> -                return;
> -        }
> +		if (was_frozen)
> +			stat(s, FREE_FROZEN);
> +		return;
> +	}
>  
>  	/*
>  	 * was_frozen may have been set after we acquired the list_lock in
> @@ -2514,7 +2524,7 @@ static void __slab_free(struct kmem_cache *s, struct page *page,
>  		stat(s, FREE_FROZEN);
>  	else {
>  		if (unlikely(!inuse && n->nr_partial > s->min_partial))
> -                        goto slab_empty;
> +			goto slab_empty;
>  
>  		/*
>  		 * Objects left in the slab. If it was not on the partial list before
> @@ -4122,7 +4132,7 @@ static void validate_slab_slab(struct kmem_cache *s, struct page *page,
>  static int validate_slab_node(struct kmem_cache *s,
>  		struct kmem_cache_node *n, unsigned long *map)
>  {
> -	unsigned long count = 0;
> +	unsigned long count = 0, n_count;
>  	struct page *page;
>  	unsigned long flags;
>  
> @@ -4143,10 +4153,20 @@ static int validate_slab_node(struct kmem_cache *s,
>  		validate_slab_slab(s, page, map);
>  		count++;
>  	}
> -	if (count != atomic_long_read(&n->nr_slabs))
> -		printk(KERN_ERR "SLUB: %s %ld slabs counted but "
> -			"counter=%ld\n", s->name, count,
> -			atomic_long_read(&n->nr_slabs));
> +	n_count = atomic_long_read(&n->nr_slabs);
> +	/*
> +	 * The following workaround is to greatly reduce the chance of counter
> +	 * mismatch messages due to the fact that inc_slabs_node() and the
> +	 * subsequent insertion into the partial or full slab list is not
> +	 * atomic. Consequently, there is a small timing window when the two
> +	 * are not in the same state. A possible fix is to take the node lock
> +	 * while doing inc_slabs_node() and slab insertion, but that may
> +	 * require substantial changes to existing slow path slab allocation
> +	 * logic.
> +	 */
> +	if ((count != n_count) && (count + 1 != n_count))
> +		printk(KERN_ERR "SLUB: %s %ld slabs counted but counter=%ld\n",
> +			s->name, count, n_count);
>  
>  out:
>  	spin_unlock_irqrestore(&n->list_lock, flags);


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