[PATCH v2 01/22] ARM: add mechanism for late code patching

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The original phys_to_virt/virt_to_phys patching implementation relied on early
patching prior to MMU initialization.  On PAE systems running out of >4G
address space, this would have entailed an additional round of patching after
switching over to the high address space.

The approach implemented here conceptually extends the original PHYS_OFFSET
patching implementation with the introduction of "early" patch stubs.  Early
patch code is required to be functional out of the box, even before the patch
is applied.  This is implemented by inserting functional (but inefficient)
load code into the .runtime.patch.code init section.  Having functional code
out of the box then allows us to defer the init time patch application until
later in the init sequence.

In addition to fitting better with our need for physical address-space
switch-over, this implementation should be somewhat more extensible by virtue
of its more readable (and hackable) C implementation.  This should prove
useful for other similar init time specialization needs, especially in light
of our multi-platform kernel initiative.

This code has been boot tested in both ARM and Thumb-2 modes on an ARMv7
(Cortex-A8) device.

Note: the obtuse use of stringified symbols in patch_stub() and
early_patch_stub() is intentional.  Theoretically this should have been
accomplished with formal operands passed into the asm block, but this requires
the use of the 'c' modifier for instantiating the long (e.g. .long %c0).
However, the 'c' modifier has been found to ICE certain versions of GCC, and
therefore we resort to stringified symbols here.

Signed-off-by: Cyril Chemparathy <cyril@xxxxxx>
---
 arch/arm/Kconfig                     |    3 +
 arch/arm/include/asm/module.h        |    7 ++
 arch/arm/include/asm/runtime-patch.h |  175 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
 arch/arm/kernel/Makefile             |    1 +
 arch/arm/kernel/module.c             |    4 +
 arch/arm/kernel/runtime-patch.c      |  189 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
 arch/arm/kernel/setup.c              |    3 +
 arch/arm/kernel/vmlinux.lds.S        |   10 ++
 8 files changed, 392 insertions(+)
 create mode 100644 arch/arm/include/asm/runtime-patch.h
 create mode 100644 arch/arm/kernel/runtime-patch.c

diff --git a/arch/arm/Kconfig b/arch/arm/Kconfig
index e91c7cd..d0a04ad 100644
--- a/arch/arm/Kconfig
+++ b/arch/arm/Kconfig
@@ -61,6 +61,9 @@ config ARM
 config ARM_HAS_SG_CHAIN
 	bool
 
+config ARM_RUNTIME_PATCH
+	bool
+
 config NEED_SG_DMA_LENGTH
 	bool
 
diff --git a/arch/arm/include/asm/module.h b/arch/arm/include/asm/module.h
index 6c6809f..2090486 100644
--- a/arch/arm/include/asm/module.h
+++ b/arch/arm/include/asm/module.h
@@ -43,9 +43,16 @@ struct mod_arch_specific {
 #define MODULE_ARCH_VERMAGIC_ARMTHUMB ""
 #endif
 
+#ifdef CONFIG_ARM_RUNTIME_PATCH
+#define MODULE_ARCH_VERMAGIC_RT_PATCH "rt-patch "
+#else
+#define MODULE_ARCH_VERMAGIC_RT_PATCH ""
+#endif
+
 #define MODULE_ARCH_VERMAGIC \
 	MODULE_ARCH_VERMAGIC_ARMVSN \
 	MODULE_ARCH_VERMAGIC_ARMTHUMB \
+	MODULE_ARCH_VERMAGIC_RT_PATCH \
 	MODULE_ARCH_VERMAGIC_P2V
 
 #endif /* _ASM_ARM_MODULE_H */
diff --git a/arch/arm/include/asm/runtime-patch.h b/arch/arm/include/asm/runtime-patch.h
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..6c6e8a2
--- /dev/null
+++ b/arch/arm/include/asm/runtime-patch.h
@@ -0,0 +1,175 @@
+/*
+ * arch/arm/include/asm/runtime-patch.h
+ * Note: this file should not be included by non-asm/.h files
+ *
+ * Copyright 2012 Texas Instruments, Inc.
+ *
+ * This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
+ * under the terms and conditions of the GNU General Public License,
+ * version 2, as published by the Free Software Foundation.
+ *
+ * This program is distributed in the hope it will be useful, but WITHOUT
+ * ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
+ * FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License for
+ * more details.
+ *
+ * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with
+ * this program.  If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
+ */
+#ifndef __ASM_ARM_RUNTIME_PATCH_H
+#define __ASM_ARM_RUNTIME_PATCH_H
+
+#include <linux/stringify.h>
+
+#ifndef __ASSEMBLY__
+
+#ifdef CONFIG_ARM_RUNTIME_PATCH
+
+struct patch_info {
+	void	*insn;
+	u16	 type;
+	u8	 insn_size;
+	u8	 data_size;
+	u32	 data[0];
+};
+
+#define patch_next(p)		((void *)(p) + sizeof(*(p)) + (p)->data_size)
+
+#define PATCH_TYPE_MASK		0x00ff
+#define PATCH_IMM8		0x0001
+
+#define PATCH_EARLY		0x8000
+
+#define patch_stub(type, code, patch_data, ...)				\
+	__asm__("@ patch stub\n"					\
+		"1:\n"							\
+		code							\
+		"2:\n"							\
+		"	.pushsection .runtime.patch.table, \"a\"\n"	\
+		"3:\n"							\
+		"	.word 1b\n"					\
+		"	.hword (" __stringify(type) ")\n"		\
+		"	.byte (2b-1b)\n"				\
+		"	.byte (5f-4f)\n"				\
+		"4:\n"							\
+		patch_data						\
+		"	.align\n"					\
+		"5:\n"							\
+		"	.popsection\n"					\
+		__VA_ARGS__)
+
+#define early_patch_stub(type, code, patch_data, ...)			\
+	__asm__("@ patch stub\n"					\
+		"1:\n"							\
+		"	b	6f\n"					\
+		"2:\n"							\
+		"	.pushsection .runtime.patch.table, \"a\"\n"	\
+		"3:\n"							\
+		"	.word 1b\n"					\
+		"	.hword (" __stringify(type | PATCH_EARLY) ")\n"	\
+		"	.byte (2b-1b)\n"				\
+		"	.byte (5f-4f)\n"				\
+		"4:\n"							\
+		patch_data						\
+		"	.align\n"					\
+		"5:\n"							\
+		"	.popsection\n"					\
+		"	.pushsection .runtime.patch.code, \"ax\"\n"	\
+		"6:\n"							\
+		code							\
+		"	b 2b\n"						\
+		"	.popsection\n"					\
+		__VA_ARGS__)
+
+/* constant used to force encoding */
+#define __IMM8		(0x81 << 24)
+
+/*
+ * patch_imm8() - init-time specialized binary operation (imm8 operand)
+ *		  This effectively does: to = from "insn" sym,
+ *		  where the value of sym is fixed at init-time, and is patched
+ *		  in as an immediate operand.  This value must be
+ *		  representible as an 8-bit quantity with an optional
+ *		  rotation.
+ *
+ *		  The stub code produced by this variant is non-functional
+ *		  prior to patching.  Use early_patch_imm8() if you need the
+ *		  code to be functional early on in the init sequence.
+ */
+#define patch_imm8(insn, to, from, sym, offset)				\
+	patch_stub(PATCH_IMM8,						\
+		   /* code */						\
+		   insn " %0, %1, %2\n",				\
+		   /* patch_data */					\
+		   ".long " __stringify(sym + offset) "\n"		\
+		   insn " %0, %1, %2\n",				\
+		   : "=r" (to)						\
+		   : "r" (from), "I" (__IMM8), "m" (sym)		\
+		   : "cc")
+
+/*
+ * patch_imm8_mov() - same as patch_imm8(), but for mov/mvn instructions
+ */
+#define patch_imm8_mov(insn, to, sym, offset)				\
+	patch_stub(PATCH_IMM8,						\
+		   /* code */						\
+		   insn " %0, %1\n",					\
+		   /* patch_data */					\
+		   ".long " __stringify(sym + offset) "\n"		\
+		   insn " %0, %1\n",					\
+		   : "=r" (to)						\
+		   : "I" (__IMM8), "m" (sym)				\
+		   : "cc")
+
+/*
+ * early_patch_imm8() - early functional variant of patch_imm8() above.  The
+ *			same restrictions on the constant apply here.  This
+ *			version emits workable (albeit inefficient) code at
+ *			compile-time, and therefore functions even prior to
+ *			patch application.
+ */
+#define early_patch_imm8(insn, to, from, sym, offset)			\
+	early_patch_stub(PATCH_IMM8,					\
+			 /* code */					\
+			 "ldr	%0, =" __stringify(sym + offset) "\n"	\
+			 "ldr	%0, [%0]\n"				\
+			 insn " %0, %1, %0\n",				\
+			 /* patch_data */				\
+			 ".long " __stringify(sym + offset) "\n"	\
+			 insn " %0, %1, %2\n",				\
+			 : "=&r" (to)					\
+			 : "r" (from), "I" (__IMM8), "m" (sym)		\
+			 : "cc")
+
+#define early_patch_imm8_mov(insn, to, sym, offset)			\
+	early_patch_stub(PATCH_IMM8,					\
+			 /* code */					\
+			 "ldr	%0, =" __stringify(sym + offset) "\n"	\
+			 "ldr	%0, [%0]\n"				\
+			 insn " %0, %0\n",				\
+			 /* patch_data */				\
+			 ".long " __stringify(sym + offset) "\n"	\
+			 insn " %0, %1\n",				\
+			 : "=&r" (to)					\
+			 : "I" (__IMM8), "m" (sym)			\
+			 : "cc")
+
+int runtime_patch(const void *table, unsigned size);
+void runtime_patch_kernel(void);
+
+#else
+
+static inline int runtime_patch(const void *table, unsigned size)
+{
+	return 0;
+}
+
+static inline void runtime_patch_kernel(void)
+{
+}
+
+#endif /* CONFIG_ARM_RUNTIME_PATCH */
+
+#endif /* __ASSEMBLY__ */
+
+#endif /* __ASM_ARM_RUNTIME_PATCH_H */
diff --git a/arch/arm/kernel/Makefile b/arch/arm/kernel/Makefile
index 7ad2d5c..12cc1e7 100644
--- a/arch/arm/kernel/Makefile
+++ b/arch/arm/kernel/Makefile
@@ -81,5 +81,6 @@ endif
 head-y			:= head$(MMUEXT).o
 obj-$(CONFIG_DEBUG_LL)	+= debug.o
 obj-$(CONFIG_EARLY_PRINTK)	+= early_printk.o
+obj-$(CONFIG_ARM_RUNTIME_PATCH)	+= runtime-patch.o
 
 extra-y := $(head-y) vmlinux.lds
diff --git a/arch/arm/kernel/module.c b/arch/arm/kernel/module.c
index 1e9be5d..dcebf80 100644
--- a/arch/arm/kernel/module.c
+++ b/arch/arm/kernel/module.c
@@ -24,6 +24,7 @@
 #include <asm/sections.h>
 #include <asm/smp_plat.h>
 #include <asm/unwind.h>
+#include <asm/runtime-patch.h>
 
 #ifdef CONFIG_XIP_KERNEL
 /*
@@ -321,6 +322,9 @@ int module_finalize(const Elf32_Ehdr *hdr, const Elf_Shdr *sechdrs,
 	if (s)
 		fixup_pv_table((void *)s->sh_addr, s->sh_size);
 #endif
+	s = find_mod_section(hdr, sechdrs, ".runtime.patch.table");
+	if (s)
+		runtime_patch((void *)s->sh_addr, s->sh_size);
 	s = find_mod_section(hdr, sechdrs, ".alt.smp.init");
 	if (s && !is_smp())
 #ifdef CONFIG_SMP_ON_UP
diff --git a/arch/arm/kernel/runtime-patch.c b/arch/arm/kernel/runtime-patch.c
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..fd37a2b
--- /dev/null
+++ b/arch/arm/kernel/runtime-patch.c
@@ -0,0 +1,189 @@
+/*
+ * arch/arm/kernel/runtime-patch.c
+ *
+ * Copyright 2012 Texas Instruments, Inc.
+ *
+ * This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
+ * under the terms and conditions of the GNU General Public License,
+ * version 2, as published by the Free Software Foundation.
+ *
+ * This program is distributed in the hope it will be useful, but WITHOUT
+ * ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
+ * FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License for
+ * more details.
+ *
+ * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with
+ * this program.  If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
+ */
+#include <linux/kernel.h>
+#include <linux/sched.h>
+
+#include <asm/opcodes.h>
+#include <asm/cacheflush.h>
+#include <asm/runtime-patch.h>
+
+static inline void flush_icache_insn(void *insn_ptr, int bytes)
+{
+	unsigned long insn_addr = (unsigned long)insn_ptr;
+	flush_icache_range(insn_addr, insn_addr + bytes - 1);
+}
+
+#ifdef CONFIG_THUMB2_KERNEL
+
+static int do_patch_imm8(u32 insn, u32 imm, u32 *ninsn)
+{
+	u32 op, rot, val;
+	const u32 supported_ops = (BIT(0)  | /* and */
+				   BIT(1)  | /* bic */
+				   BIT(2)  | /* orr/mov */
+				   BIT(3)  | /* orn/mvn */
+				   BIT(4)  | /* eor */
+				   BIT(8)  | /* add */
+				   BIT(10) | /* adc */
+				   BIT(11) | /* sbc */
+				   BIT(12) | /* sub */
+				   BIT(13)); /* rsb */
+
+	insn = __mem_to_opcode_thumb32(insn);
+
+	if (!__opcode_is_thumb32(insn)) {
+		pr_err("patch: invalid thumb2 insn %08x\n", insn);
+		return -EINVAL;
+	}
+
+	/* allow only data processing (immediate)
+	 * 1111 0x0x xxx0 xxxx 0xxx xxxx xxxx xxxx */
+	if ((insn & 0xfa008000) != 0xf0000000) {
+		pr_err("patch: unknown insn %08x\n", insn);
+		return -EINVAL;
+	}
+
+	/* extract op code */
+	op = (insn >> 21) & 0xf;
+
+	/* disallow unsupported opcodes */
+	if ((supported_ops & BIT(op)) == 0) {
+		pr_err("patch: unsupported opcode %x\n", op);
+		return -EINVAL;
+	}
+
+	if (imm <= 0xff) {
+		rot = 0;
+		val = imm;
+	} else {
+		rot = 32 - fls(imm); /* clz */
+		if (imm & ~(0xff000000 >> rot)) {
+			pr_err("patch: constant overflow %08x\n", imm);
+			return -EINVAL;
+		}
+		val  = (imm >> (24 - rot)) & 0x7f;
+		rot += 8; /* encoded i:imm3:a */
+
+		/* pack least-sig rot bit into most-sig val bit */
+		val |= (rot & 1) << 7;
+		rot >>= 1;
+	}
+
+	*ninsn  = insn & ~(BIT(26) | 0x7 << 12 | 0xff);
+	*ninsn |= (rot >> 3) << 26;	/* field "i" */
+	*ninsn |= (rot & 0x7) << 12;	/* field "imm3" */
+	*ninsn |= val;
+	*ninsn  = __opcode_to_mem_thumb32(*ninsn);
+
+	return 0;
+}
+
+#else
+
+static int do_patch_imm8(u32 insn, u32 imm, u32 *ninsn)
+{
+	u32 rot, val, op;
+
+	insn = __mem_to_opcode_arm(insn);
+
+	/* disallow special unconditional instructions
+	 * 1111 xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx */
+	if ((insn >> 24) == 0xf) {
+		pr_err("patch: unconditional insn %08x\n", insn);
+		return -EINVAL;
+	}
+
+	/* allow only data processing (immediate)
+	 * xxxx 001x xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx */
+	if (((insn >> 25) & 0x3) != 1) {
+		pr_err("patch: unknown insn %08x\n", insn);
+		return -EINVAL;
+	}
+
+	/* extract op code */
+	op = (insn >> 20) & 0x1f;
+
+	/* disallow unsupported 10xxx op codes */
+	if (((op >> 3) & 0x3) == 2) {
+		pr_err("patch: unsupported opcode %08x\n", insn);
+		return -EINVAL;
+	}
+
+	rot = imm ? __ffs(imm) / 2 : 0;
+	val = imm >> (rot * 2);
+	rot = (-rot) & 0xf;
+
+	/* does this fit in 8-bit? */
+	if (val > 0xff) {
+		pr_err("patch: constant overflow %08x\n", imm);
+		return -EINVAL;
+	}
+
+	/* patch in new immediate and rotation */
+	*ninsn = (insn & ~0xfff) | (rot << 8) | val;
+	*ninsn = __opcode_to_mem_arm(*ninsn);
+
+	return 0;
+}
+
+#endif	/* CONFIG_THUMB2_KERNEL */
+
+static int apply_patch_imm8(const struct patch_info *p)
+{
+	u32 *insn_ptr = p->insn;
+	int ret;
+
+	if (p->insn_size != sizeof(u32) || p->data_size != 2 * sizeof(u32)) {
+		pr_err("patch: bad patch, insn size %d, data size %d\n",
+		       p->insn_size, p->data_size);
+		return -EINVAL;
+	}
+
+	ret = do_patch_imm8(p->data[1], *(u32 *)p->data[0], insn_ptr);
+	if (ret < 0)
+		return ret;
+
+	flush_icache_insn(insn_ptr, sizeof(u32));
+
+	return 0;
+}
+
+int runtime_patch(const void *table, unsigned size)
+{
+	const struct patch_info *p = table, *end = (table + size);
+
+	for (p = table; p < end; p = patch_next(p)) {
+		int type = p->type & PATCH_TYPE_MASK;
+		int ret = -EINVAL;
+
+		if (type == PATCH_IMM8)
+			ret = apply_patch_imm8(p);
+		if (ret < 0)
+			return ret;
+	}
+	return 0;
+}
+
+void __init runtime_patch_kernel(void)
+{
+	extern unsigned __runtime_patch_table_begin, __runtime_patch_table_end;
+	const void *start = &__runtime_patch_table_begin;
+	const void *end   = &__runtime_patch_table_end;
+
+	BUG_ON(runtime_patch(start, end - start));
+}
diff --git a/arch/arm/kernel/setup.c b/arch/arm/kernel/setup.c
index a81dcec..669bbf0 100644
--- a/arch/arm/kernel/setup.c
+++ b/arch/arm/kernel/setup.c
@@ -55,6 +55,7 @@
 #include <asm/traps.h>
 #include <asm/unwind.h>
 #include <asm/memblock.h>
+#include <asm/runtime-patch.h>
 
 #if defined(CONFIG_DEPRECATED_PARAM_STRUCT)
 #include "compat.h"
@@ -998,6 +999,8 @@ void __init setup_arch(char **cmdline_p)
 
 	if (mdesc->init_early)
 		mdesc->init_early();
+
+	runtime_patch_kernel();
 }
 
 
diff --git a/arch/arm/kernel/vmlinux.lds.S b/arch/arm/kernel/vmlinux.lds.S
index 36ff15b..ea35ca0 100644
--- a/arch/arm/kernel/vmlinux.lds.S
+++ b/arch/arm/kernel/vmlinux.lds.S
@@ -167,6 +167,16 @@ SECTIONS
 		*(.pv_table)
 		__pv_table_end = .;
 	}
+	.init.runtime_patch_table : {
+		__runtime_patch_table_begin = .;
+		*(.runtime.patch.table)
+		__runtime_patch_table_end = .;
+	}
+	.init.runtime_patch_code : {
+		__runtime_patch_code_begin = .;
+		*(.runtime.patch.code)
+		__runtime_patch_code_end = .;
+	}
 	.init.data : {
 #ifndef CONFIG_XIP_KERNEL
 		INIT_DATA
-- 
1.7.9.5

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