[PATCH v2 5/9] writeback: introduce the pageout work

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This relays file pageout IOs to the flusher threads.

It's much more important now that page reclaim generally does not
writeout filesystem-backed pages.

The ultimate target is to gracefully handle the LRU lists pressured by
dirty/writeback pages. In particular, problems (1-2) are addressed here.

1) I/O efficiency

The flusher will piggy back the nearby ~10ms worth of dirty pages for I/O.

This takes advantage of the time/spacial locality in most workloads: the
nearby pages of one file are typically populated into the LRU at the same
time, hence will likely be close to each other in the LRU list. Writing
them in one shot helps clean more pages effectively for page reclaim.

For the common dd style sequential writes that have excellent locality,
up to ~128ms data will be wrote around by the pageout work, which helps
make I/O performance very close to that of the background writeback.

2) writeback work coordinations

To avoid memory allocations at page reclaim, a mempool for struct
wb_writeback_work is created.

wakeup_flusher_threads() is removed because it can easily delay the
more oriented pageout works and even exhaust the mempool reservations.
It's also found to not I/O efficient by frequently submitting writeback
works with small ->nr_pages. wakeup_flusher_threads() is called with
total_scanned. Which could be (LRU_size / 4096). Given 1GB LRU_size,
the write chunk would be 256KB.  This is much smaller than the old 4MB
and the now preferred write chunk size (write_bandwidth/2).  For
direct reclaim, sc->nr_to_reclaim=32 and total_scanned starts with
(LRU_size / 4096), which *always* exceeds writeback_threshold in boxes
with more than 1GB memory. So the flusher end up constantly be fed
with small writeout requests.

Typically the flusher will be working on the background/periodic works
when there are heavy dirtier tasks. And wb_writeback() will quit the
background/periodic work when pageout or other works are queued. So
the pageout works can typically be pick up and executed quickly by the
flusher: the background/periodic works are the dominant ones and there
are rarely other type of works in the way.

However the other type of works, if ever they come, can still block us
for long time. Will need a proper way to guarantee fairness.

Jan Kara: limit the search scope; remove works and unpin inodes on umount.

CC: Jan Kara <jack@xxxxxxx>
CC: Mel Gorman <mgorman@xxxxxxx>
Acked-by: Rik van Riel <riel@xxxxxxxxxx>
CC: Greg Thelen <gthelen@xxxxxxxxxx>
CC: Minchan Kim <minchan.kim@xxxxxxxxx>
Signed-off-by: Fengguang Wu <fengguang.wu@xxxxxxxxx>
---
 fs/fs-writeback.c                |  278 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++--
 fs/super.c                       |    1 
 include/linux/backing-dev.h      |    2 
 include/linux/writeback.h        |   16 +
 include/trace/events/writeback.h |   12 -
 mm/vmscan.c                      |   36 ++-
 6 files changed, 316 insertions(+), 29 deletions(-)

--- linux.orig/fs/fs-writeback.c	2012-02-29 08:41:52.057540723 +0800
+++ linux/fs/fs-writeback.c	2012-02-29 21:38:20.215305104 +0800
@@ -36,9 +36,37 @@
 
 /*
  * Passed into wb_writeback(), essentially a subset of writeback_control
+ *
+ * The wb_writeback_work is created (and hence auto destroyed) either on stack,
+ * or dynamically allocated from the mempool. The implicit rule is: the caller
+ * shall allocate wb_writeback_work on stack iif it want to wait for completion
+ * of the work (aka. synchronous work).
+ *
+ * The work is then queued into bdi->work_list, where the flusher picks up one
+ * wb_writeback_work at a time, dequeue, execute and finally either free it
+ * (mempool allocated) or wake up the caller (on stack).
+ *
+ * It's possible for vmscan to queue lots of pageout works in short time.
+ * However it does not need too many IOs in flight to saturate a typical disk.
+ * Limiting the queue size helps reduce the queuing delays. So the below rules
+ * are applied:
+ *
+ * - when LOTS_OF_WRITEBACK_WORKS = WB_WORK_MEMPOOL_SIZE / 8 = 128 works are
+ *   queued, vmscan should start throttling itself (to the rate the flusher can
+ *   consume pageout works).
+ *
+ * - when 2 * LOTS_OF_WRITEBACK_WORKS wb_writeback_work are queued, will refuse
+ *   to queue new pageout works
+ *
+ * - the remaining mempool reservations are available for other types of works
  */
 struct wb_writeback_work {
 	long nr_pages;
+	/*
+	 * WB_REASON_LAPTOP_TIMER, WB_REASON_FREE_MORE_MEM and some
+	 * WB_REASON_SYNC callers queue works with ->sb == NULL. They just want
+	 * to knock down the bdi dirty pages and don't care about the exact sb.
+	 */
 	struct super_block *sb;
 	unsigned long *older_than_this;
 	enum writeback_sync_modes sync_mode;
@@ -48,6 +76,13 @@ struct wb_writeback_work {
 	unsigned int for_background:1;
 	enum wb_reason reason;		/* why was writeback initiated? */
 
+	/*
+	 * When (inode != NULL), it's a pageout work for cleaning the inode
+	 * pages from start to start+nr_pages.
+	 */
+	struct inode *inode;
+	pgoff_t start;
+
 	struct list_head list;		/* pending work list */
 	struct completion *done;	/* set if the caller waits */
 };
@@ -57,6 +92,28 @@ struct wb_writeback_work {
  */
 int nr_pdflush_threads;
 
+static mempool_t *wb_work_mempool;
+
+static void *wb_work_alloc(gfp_t gfp_mask, void *pool_data)
+{
+	/*
+	 * Avoid page allocation on page reclaim. The mempool reservations are
+	 * typically more than enough for good disk utilization.
+	 */
+	if (current->flags & PF_MEMALLOC)
+		return NULL;
+
+	return kmalloc(sizeof(struct wb_writeback_work), gfp_mask);
+}
+
+static __init int wb_work_init(void)
+{
+	wb_work_mempool = mempool_create(WB_WORK_MEMPOOL_SIZE,
+					 wb_work_alloc, mempool_kfree, NULL);
+	return wb_work_mempool ? 0 : -ENOMEM;
+}
+fs_initcall(wb_work_init);
+
 /**
  * writeback_in_progress - determine whether there is writeback in progress
  * @bdi: the device's backing_dev_info structure.
@@ -111,6 +168,22 @@ static void bdi_queue_work(struct backin
 {
 	trace_writeback_queue(bdi, work);
 
+	/*
+	 * The iput() for pageout works may occasionally dive deep into complex
+	 * fs code. This brings new possibilities/sources of deadlock:
+	 *
+	 *   free work => iput => fs code => queue writeback work and wait on it
+	 *
+	 * In the above scheme, the flusher ends up waiting endless for itself.
+	 */
+	if (unlikely(current == bdi->wb.task ||
+		     current == default_backing_dev_info.wb.task)) {
+		WARN_ON_ONCE(1); /* recursion; deadlock if ->done is set */
+		if (work->done)
+			complete(work->done);
+		return;
+	}
+
 	spin_lock_bh(&bdi->wb_lock);
 	list_add_tail(&work->list, &bdi->work_list);
 	if (!bdi->wb.task)
@@ -129,7 +202,7 @@ __bdi_start_writeback(struct backing_dev
 	 * This is WB_SYNC_NONE writeback, so if allocation fails just
 	 * wakeup the thread for old dirty data writeback
 	 */
-	work = kzalloc(sizeof(*work), GFP_ATOMIC);
+	work = mempool_alloc(wb_work_mempool, GFP_ATOMIC);
 	if (!work) {
 		if (bdi->wb.task) {
 			trace_writeback_nowork(bdi);
@@ -138,6 +211,7 @@ __bdi_start_writeback(struct backing_dev
 		return;
 	}
 
+	memset(work, 0, sizeof(*work));
 	work->sync_mode	= WB_SYNC_NONE;
 	work->nr_pages	= nr_pages;
 	work->range_cyclic = range_cyclic;
@@ -187,6 +261,176 @@ void bdi_start_background_writeback(stru
 }
 
 /*
+ * Check if @work already covers @offset, or try to extend it to cover @offset.
+ * Returns true if the wb_writeback_work now encompasses the requested offset.
+ */
+static bool extend_writeback_range(struct wb_writeback_work *work,
+				   pgoff_t offset,
+				   unsigned long unit)
+{
+	pgoff_t end = work->start + work->nr_pages;
+
+	if (offset >= work->start && offset < end)
+		return true;
+
+	/*
+	 * For sequential workloads with good locality, include up to 8 times
+	 * more data in one chunk. The unit chunk size is calculated so that it
+	 * costs 8-16ms to write so many pages. So 8 times means we can extend
+	 * it up to 128ms. It's a good value because 128ms data transfer time
+	 * makes the typical overheads of 8ms disk seek time look small enough.
+	 */
+	if (work->nr_pages >= 8 * unit)
+		return false;
+
+	/* the unsigned comparison helps eliminate one compare */
+	if (work->start - offset < unit) {
+		work->nr_pages += unit;
+		work->start -= unit;
+		return true;
+	}
+
+	if (offset - end < unit) {
+		work->nr_pages += unit;
+		return true;
+	}
+
+	return false;
+}
+
+/*
+ * schedule writeback on a range of inode pages.
+ */
+static struct wb_writeback_work *
+alloc_queue_pageout_work(struct backing_dev_info *bdi,
+			 struct inode *inode,
+			 pgoff_t start,
+			 pgoff_t len)
+{
+	struct wb_writeback_work *work;
+
+	/*
+	 * Grab the inode until the work is executed. We are calling this from
+	 * page reclaim context and the only thing pinning the address_space
+	 * for the moment is the page lock.
+	 */
+	if (!igrab(inode))
+		return NULL;
+
+	work = mempool_alloc(wb_work_mempool, GFP_NOWAIT);
+	if (!work)
+		return NULL;
+
+	memset(work, 0, sizeof(*work));
+	work->sync_mode		= WB_SYNC_NONE;
+	work->sb		= inode->i_sb;
+	work->inode		= inode;
+	work->start		= start;
+	work->nr_pages		= len;
+	work->reason		= WB_REASON_PAGEOUT;
+
+	bdi_queue_work(bdi, work);
+
+	return work;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Called by page reclaim code to flush the dirty page ASAP. Do write-around to
+ * improve IO throughput. The nearby pages will have good chance to reside in
+ * the same LRU list that vmscan is working on, and even close to each other
+ * inside the LRU list in the common case of sequential read/write.
+ *
+ * ret > 0: success, allocated/queued a new pageout work;
+ *	    there are at least @ret writeback works queued now
+ * ret = 0: success, reused/extended a previous pageout work
+ * ret < 0: failed
+ */
+int queue_pageout_work(struct address_space *mapping, struct page *page)
+{
+	struct backing_dev_info *bdi = mapping->backing_dev_info;
+	struct inode *inode = mapping->host;
+	struct wb_writeback_work *work;
+	unsigned long write_around_pages;
+	pgoff_t offset = page->index;
+	int i = 0;
+	int ret = -1;
+
+	BUG_ON(!inode);
+
+	/*
+	 * piggy back 8-16ms worth of data
+	 */
+	write_around_pages = bdi->avg_write_bandwidth + MIN_WRITEBACK_PAGES;
+	write_around_pages = rounddown_pow_of_two(write_around_pages) >> 6;
+
+	spin_lock_bh(&bdi->wb_lock);
+	list_for_each_entry_reverse(work, &bdi->work_list, list) {
+		/*
+		 * vmscan will slow down page reclaim when there are more than
+		 * LOTS_OF_WRITEBACK_WORKS queued. Limit search depth to two
+		 * times larger.
+		 */
+		if (i++ > 2 * LOTS_OF_WRITEBACK_WORKS)
+			break;
+		if (work->inode != inode)
+			continue;
+		if (extend_writeback_range(work, offset, write_around_pages)) {
+			ret = 0;
+			break;
+		}
+	}
+	spin_unlock_bh(&bdi->wb_lock);
+
+	/*
+	 * if we failed to add the page to an existing wb_writeback_work and
+	 * there are not too many existing ones, allocate and queue a new one
+	 */
+	if (ret && i <= 2 * LOTS_OF_WRITEBACK_WORKS) {
+		offset = round_down(offset, write_around_pages);
+		work = alloc_queue_pageout_work(bdi, inode,
+						offset, write_around_pages);
+		if (work)
+			ret = i;
+	}
+	return ret;
+}
+
+static void wb_free_work(struct wb_writeback_work *work)
+{
+	if (work->inode)
+		iput(work->inode);
+	/*
+	 * Notify the caller of completion if this is a synchronous
+	 * work item, otherwise just free it.
+	 */
+	if (work->done)
+		complete(work->done);
+	else
+		mempool_free(work, wb_work_mempool);
+}
+
+/*
+ * Remove works for @sb; or if (@sb == NULL), remove all works on @bdi.
+ */
+void bdi_remove_writeback_works(struct backing_dev_info *bdi,
+				struct super_block *sb)
+{
+	struct wb_writeback_work *work, *tmp;
+	LIST_HEAD(dispose);
+
+	spin_lock_bh(&bdi->wb_lock);
+	list_for_each_entry_safe(work, tmp, &bdi->work_list, list) {
+		if (sb && work->sb && sb != work->sb)
+			continue;
+		list_move(&work->list, &dispose);
+	}
+	spin_unlock_bh(&bdi->wb_lock);
+
+	list_for_each_entry(work, &dispose, list)
+		wb_free_work(work);
+}
+
+/*
  * Remove the inode from the writeback list it is on.
  */
 void inode_wb_list_del(struct inode *inode)
@@ -833,6 +1077,24 @@ static unsigned long get_nr_dirty_pages(
 		get_nr_dirty_inodes();
 }
 
+/*
+ * Clean pages for page reclaim. Returns the number of pages written.
+ */
+static long wb_pageout(struct bdi_writeback *wb, struct wb_writeback_work *work)
+{
+	struct writeback_control wbc = {
+		.sync_mode = WB_SYNC_NONE,
+		.nr_to_write = LONG_MAX,
+		.range_start = (loff_t)work->start << PAGE_CACHE_SHIFT,
+		.range_end = (loff_t)(work->start + work->nr_pages - 1)
+						<< PAGE_CACHE_SHIFT,
+	};
+
+	do_writepages(work->inode->i_mapping, &wbc);
+
+	return LONG_MAX - wbc.nr_to_write;
+}
+
 static long wb_check_background_flush(struct bdi_writeback *wb)
 {
 	if (over_bground_thresh(wb->bdi)) {
@@ -905,16 +1167,12 @@ long wb_do_writeback(struct bdi_writebac
 
 		trace_writeback_exec(bdi, work);
 
-		wrote += wb_writeback(wb, work);
-
-		/*
-		 * Notify the caller of completion if this is a synchronous
-		 * work item, otherwise just free it.
-		 */
-		if (work->done)
-			complete(work->done);
+		if (!work->inode)
+			wrote += wb_writeback(wb, work);
 		else
-			kfree(work);
+			wrote += wb_pageout(wb, work);
+
+		wb_free_work(work);
 	}
 
 	/*
--- linux.orig/include/trace/events/writeback.h	2012-02-29 08:41:52.021540723 +0800
+++ linux/include/trace/events/writeback.h	2012-02-29 16:35:48.115056756 +0800
@@ -23,7 +23,7 @@
 
 #define WB_WORK_REASON							\
 		{WB_REASON_BACKGROUND,		"background"},		\
-		{WB_REASON_TRY_TO_FREE_PAGES,	"try_to_free_pages"},	\
+		{WB_REASON_PAGEOUT,		"pageout"},		\
 		{WB_REASON_SYNC,		"sync"},		\
 		{WB_REASON_PERIODIC,		"periodic"},		\
 		{WB_REASON_LAPTOP_TIMER,	"laptop_timer"},	\
@@ -45,6 +45,8 @@ DECLARE_EVENT_CLASS(writeback_work_class
 		__field(int, range_cyclic)
 		__field(int, for_background)
 		__field(int, reason)
+		__field(unsigned long, ino)
+		__field(unsigned long, start)
 	),
 	TP_fast_assign(
 		struct device *dev = bdi->dev;
@@ -58,9 +60,11 @@ DECLARE_EVENT_CLASS(writeback_work_class
 		__entry->range_cyclic = work->range_cyclic;
 		__entry->for_background	= work->for_background;
 		__entry->reason = work->reason;
+		__entry->ino = work->inode ? work->inode->i_ino : 0;
+		__entry->start = work->start;
 	),
 	TP_printk("bdi %s: sb_dev %d:%d nr_pages=%ld sync_mode=%d "
-		  "kupdate=%d range_cyclic=%d background=%d reason=%s",
+		  "kupdate=%d range_cyclic=%d background=%d reason=%s ino=%lu start=%lu",
 		  __entry->name,
 		  MAJOR(__entry->sb_dev), MINOR(__entry->sb_dev),
 		  __entry->nr_pages,
@@ -68,7 +72,9 @@ DECLARE_EVENT_CLASS(writeback_work_class
 		  __entry->for_kupdate,
 		  __entry->range_cyclic,
 		  __entry->for_background,
-		  __print_symbolic(__entry->reason, WB_WORK_REASON)
+		  __print_symbolic(__entry->reason, WB_WORK_REASON),
+		  __entry->ino,
+		  __entry->start
 	)
 );
 #define DEFINE_WRITEBACK_WORK_EVENT(name) \
--- linux.orig/include/linux/writeback.h	2012-02-29 08:41:52.037540723 +0800
+++ linux/include/linux/writeback.h	2012-02-29 21:31:32.095295409 +0800
@@ -40,7 +40,7 @@ enum writeback_sync_modes {
  */
 enum wb_reason {
 	WB_REASON_BACKGROUND,
-	WB_REASON_TRY_TO_FREE_PAGES,
+	WB_REASON_PAGEOUT,
 	WB_REASON_SYNC,
 	WB_REASON_PERIODIC,
 	WB_REASON_LAPTOP_TIMER,
@@ -94,6 +94,20 @@ long writeback_inodes_wb(struct bdi_writ
 				enum wb_reason reason);
 long wb_do_writeback(struct bdi_writeback *wb, int force_wait);
 void wakeup_flusher_threads(long nr_pages, enum wb_reason reason);
+int queue_pageout_work(struct address_space *mapping, struct page *page);
+
+/*
+ * Tailored for vmscan which may submit lots of pageout works. The page reclaim
+ * should try to slow down the pageout work submission rate when the queue size
+ * grows to LOTS_OF_WRITEBACK_WORKS. queue_pageout_work() will accordingly limit
+ * its search depth to (2 * LOTS_OF_WRITEBACK_WORKS).
+ *
+ * Note that the limited search and work pool is not a big problem: 1024 IOs
+ * under flight are typically more than enough to saturate the disk. And the
+ * overheads of searching in the work list didn't even show up in perf report.
+ */
+#define WB_WORK_MEMPOOL_SIZE		1024
+#define LOTS_OF_WRITEBACK_WORKS		(WB_WORK_MEMPOOL_SIZE / 8)
 
 /* writeback.h requires fs.h; it, too, is not included from here. */
 static inline void wait_on_inode(struct inode *inode)
--- linux.orig/fs/super.c	2012-02-29 08:41:52.045540723 +0800
+++ linux/fs/super.c	2012-02-29 11:19:57.474606367 +0800
@@ -389,6 +389,7 @@ void generic_shutdown_super(struct super
 
 		fsnotify_unmount_inodes(&sb->s_inodes);
 
+		bdi_remove_writeback_works(sb->s_bdi, sb);
 		evict_inodes(sb);
 
 		if (sop->put_super)
--- linux.orig/include/linux/backing-dev.h	2012-02-29 08:41:52.029540722 +0800
+++ linux/include/linux/backing-dev.h	2012-02-29 11:19:57.474606367 +0800
@@ -126,6 +126,8 @@ int bdi_has_dirty_io(struct backing_dev_
 void bdi_arm_supers_timer(void);
 void bdi_wakeup_thread_delayed(struct backing_dev_info *bdi);
 void bdi_lock_two(struct bdi_writeback *wb1, struct bdi_writeback *wb2);
+void bdi_remove_writeback_works(struct backing_dev_info *bdi,
+				struct super_block *sb);
 
 extern spinlock_t bdi_lock;
 extern struct list_head bdi_list;
--- linux.orig/mm/vmscan.c	2012-02-29 08:41:52.009540722 +0800
+++ linux/mm/vmscan.c	2012-02-29 21:31:31.463295395 +0800
@@ -874,12 +874,22 @@ static unsigned long shrink_page_list(st
 			nr_dirty++;
 
 			/*
-			 * Only kswapd can writeback filesystem pages to
-			 * avoid risk of stack overflow but do not writeback
-			 * unless under significant pressure.
+			 * Pages may be dirtied anywhere inside the LRU. This
+			 * ensures they undergo a full period of LRU iteration
+			 * before considering pageout. The intention is to
+			 * delay writeout to the flusher thread, unless when
+			 * run into a long segment of dirty pages.
+			 */
+			if (references == PAGEREF_RECLAIM_CLEAN &&
+			    priority == DEF_PRIORITY)
+				goto keep_locked;
+
+			/*
+			 * Try relaying the pageout I/O to the flusher threads
+			 * for better I/O efficiency and avoid stack overflow.
 			 */
-			if (page_is_file_cache(page) &&
-					(!current_is_kswapd() || priority >= DEF_PRIORITY - 2)) {
+			if (page_is_file_cache(page) && mapping &&
+			    queue_pageout_work(mapping, page) >= 0) {
 				/*
 				 * Immediately reclaim when written back.
 				 * Similar in principal to deactivate_page()
@@ -892,8 +902,13 @@ static unsigned long shrink_page_list(st
 				goto keep_locked;
 			}
 
-			if (references == PAGEREF_RECLAIM_CLEAN)
+			/*
+			 * Only kswapd can writeback filesystem pages to
+			 * avoid risk of stack overflow.
+			 */
+			if (page_is_file_cache(page) && !current_is_kswapd())
 				goto keep_locked;
+
 			if (!may_enter_fs)
 				goto keep_locked;
 			if (!sc->may_writepage)
@@ -2373,17 +2388,8 @@ static unsigned long do_try_to_free_page
 		if (sc->nr_reclaimed >= sc->nr_to_reclaim)
 			goto out;
 
-		/*
-		 * Try to write back as many pages as we just scanned.  This
-		 * tends to cause slow streaming writers to write data to the
-		 * disk smoothly, at the dirtying rate, which is nice.   But
-		 * that's undesirable in laptop mode, where we *want* lumpy
-		 * writeout.  So in laptop mode, write out the whole world.
-		 */
 		writeback_threshold = sc->nr_to_reclaim + sc->nr_to_reclaim / 2;
 		if (total_scanned > writeback_threshold) {
-			wakeup_flusher_threads(laptop_mode ? 0 : total_scanned,
-						WB_REASON_TRY_TO_FREE_PAGES);
 			sc->may_writepage = 1;
 		}
 
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