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Though the ID states: This document underscores the point that not only is reassembly (and possibly subsequent fragmentation) required for translation, it can be used to avoid issues with IPv4 ID uniqueness. according to RFC2765, which does not need port numbers for address mapping: If the IPv6 packet contains a Fragment header the header fields are set as above with the following exceptions: Identification: Copied from the low-order 16-bits in the Identification field in the Fragment header. Flags: The More Fragments flag is copied from the M flag in the Fragment header. The Don't Fragments flag is set to zero allowing this packet to be fragmented by IPv4 routers. the translated IPv4 packets are not atomic with 16bit IDs. Note that the RFC is referred by NAT646 etc. Then, aren't IPv6 nodes are required to rate limit packets they generate with fragment headers assuming 16bit IDs? Or, are 6 to 4 translators are required to rate limit and drop rate-violating packets to make the "stateless" translators full of states. Or? Masataka Ohta PS As the RFC specifies ID=0 when DF is set 0, it should also be updated to conform to the robustness principle.