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Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Health Matters for Women[TM] E-Newsletter Update



Title: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Health Matters for Women[TM] E-Newsletter Update
April 2011

Health Matters for Women

New from CDC

Vital Signs: Teen Pregnancy — United States, 1991–2009
Overall, in 2009, approximately 410,000 teens aged 15–19 years gave birth in the United States, a rate of 39.1 births per 1,000 females. This report describes trends in birth rates among U.S. teens aged 15–19 years and percentages of high school students having sexual intercourse and using contraceptives.

Vital Signs: Preventing Teen Pregnancy in the U.S.
Prevention efforts work by teaching teens how and why to delay starting sex and steps that they need to take if they become sexually active. Key components include sex education that has been shown to work, support for parent-teen communication about preventing pregnancy, and ready access to sexual and reproductive health services. Sexually active teens should have access to effective and affordable birth control.

Sexual Assault Awareness
In the United States, 1 in 6 women and 1 in 33 men report that they have experienced an attempted or completed rape in their lifetime.

Preventing and Managing Chronic Disease to Improve the Health of Women and Infants
This fact sheet highlights the burden and effects of chronic disease and related risk factors on reproductive aged women and on their pregnancy outcomes. It also includes steps women can take to improve their health, related CDC activities, and additional resources.

Results of FEM-PrEP Clinical Trial Examining Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV Prevention Among Heterosexual Women
FHI announced that it will stop the FEM-PrEP study of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention among heterosexual women. The decision was made after a regularly scheduled interim review of data by the trial's independent data monitoring committee determined that the trial could not demonstrate efficacy even if it continued to its originally-planned conclusion. While PrEP with FTC/TDF was not shown to be effective in preliminary analyses of these study results, it cannot yet be definitely determined whether this drug combination works, or does not work, to prevent HIV among women.

Dietary Supplement Use Among U.S. Adults Has Increased Since NHANES III (1988–1994)
Use of dietary supplements is common among the U.S. adult population. Over 40% used supplements in 1988–1994, and over one-half in 2003–2006. Multivitamins/multiminerals are the most commonly used dietary supplements, with approximately 40% of men and women reporting use during 2003–2006. Use of supplemental calcium increased from 28% during 1988–1994 to 61% during 2003–2006 among women aged 60 and over. Use of supplements containing folic acid among women aged 20–39 did not increase since 1988–1994. In 2003–2006, 34% of women aged 20–39 used a dietary supplement containing folic acid.

Mean Systolic and Diastolic Blood Pressure in Adults Aged 18 and Over in the United States, 2001–2008 (pdf)
These estimates of the distribution of blood pressure may be useful for policy makers who are considering ways to achieve a downward shift in the population distribution of blood pressure with the goal of reducing morbidity and mortality related to hypertension.

Epidemiology of HIV Infection (through 2009)
Thirty slides in Adope PDF or PowerPoint provide summaries of factors related to the epidemiology of HIV infection.

CDC Grand Rounds: Chlamydia Prevention: Challenges and Strategies for Reducing Disease Burden and Sequelae
Substantial racial/ethnic disparities in chlamydial infection exist, with prevalence among non-Hispanic blacks approximately five times the prevalence among non-Hispanic whites. Among sexually active females aged 14-19 years, chlamydia prevalence is 6.8% overall (4.4% among non-Hispanic whites and 16.2% among non-Hispanic blacks).

Safe and Healthy Wedding
Planning a wedding can be wonderful and stressful. Make decisions that support your mental and physical health by including ways to be safe and healthy to your wedding plan "to do" list.

Reported CD4+ T-Lymphocyte Results for Adults and Adolescents with HIV Infection—37 States, 2005–2007
The information in this report can also be used to evaluate prevention activities. This report complements traditional HIV infection surveillance data for persons aged 13 years and older. For each analysis, we assessed the CD4 test result at a specified time after HIV diagnosis—for most tabulated data, within 3 and 12 months after diagnosis. To allow for the stabilization of data collection and for adjustment of the data to monitor trends, we used data from 37 states with HIV reporting to CDC for at least 4 years.

Malaria Surveillance - United States, 2009
In 2009, a total 19 cases of malaria were reported among pregnant women and three congenital malaria cases. Of the 19 cases in pregnant women, two had severe malaria, and none reported adherence to the chemoprophylaxis drug regimen. Pregnant travelers should be counseled to avoid travel to malarious areas. If deferral of travel is impossible, pregnant women should be informed that the risks for malaria greatly outweigh those associated with prophylaxis and that safe chemoprophylaxis regimens are available and should be emphasized.

Pregnant? Don’t Smoke
Quitting smoking can be hard, but it is one of the best ways a woman can protect herself and her baby's health. For free help, call 1-800-QUIT-NOW (1-800-784-8669).

Epidural and Spinal Anesthesia Use During Labor: 27-state Reporting Area, 2008 (pdf)
Overall, 61 percent of women who had a singleton birth in a vaginal delivery in the 27 states in 2008 received epidural or spinal anesthesia; non-Hispanic white women received epidural or spinal anesthesia more often (69 percent) than other racial groups. Among Hispanic origin groups, Puerto Rican women were most likely to receive epidural or spinal anesthesia (68 percent). Levels increased with increasing maternal educational attainment.

Assessing Completeness of Perinatal Hepatitis B Virus Infection Reporting Through Comparison of Immunization Program and Surveillance Data
Comparison of immunization program and communicable disease surveillance data for reported perinatal HBV infections demonstrates a need for improved quality and completeness of both reporting systems. Some infants were reported for the wrong calendar year in the annual report, whereas case definitions were misinterpreted (e.g., maternal infections were miscoded as perinatal infections) in National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System. In the two reporting systems, 5%-8% of cases contained insufficient data to verify cases, and 13%-18% of cases were erroneous reports.

CDC Grants

Dating Matters: Strategies to Promote Healthy Teen Relationships [CDC-RFA-CE11-1103]
The purpose of the program, Dating Matters: Strategies to Promote Healthy Teen Relationships, is to build local public health capacity to establish a comprehensive community-wide Teen Dating Violence Prevention Initiative that focuses on 11-14 year olds to promote respectful, nonviolent dating relationships among youth in high-risk urban communities. Demonstration sites will build capacity to implement two models of TDV prevention (standard and comprehensive) to see how effective, feasible, and sustainable these approaches will be in high-risk urban communities. Closing date: May 5, 2011.

A National Coalition to Enhance STD/HIV Prevention through Promotion of a Holistic Approach to Health and Wellness [CDC-RFA-PS11-1112]
The overall goal is to bring together a group of organizations from diverse sectors to enhance STD/HIV prevention by advancing a public health approach to improve sexual health. This effort will include developing a framework and strategies to support relevant national multisectoral leadership and to promote effective actions in multiple areas of focus, including but not limited to: health care providers and promoting collaboration and holistic approaches with health care and delivery systems; communication, health education, and marketing professionals and promoting attitudinal, knowledge, behavioral and social change and norms to enhance STD/HIV prevention and foster improved sexual health; policy professionals and promoting effective policy actions; and educational professionals and promoting medically-accurate and evidence-based education and school policies to enhance STD/HIV prevention by advancing public health approaches to improve sexual health. Closing date: May 31, 2011.

Surveillance of Birth Defects in Low and Middle Income Countries [CDC-RFA-DD11-1104]
The purpose of the program is to support: (1) the development, implementation, expansion, and evaluation of population-based birth defects surveillance systems in low- or middle-income countries; and (2) efforts to develop and implement population-based programs to prevent birth defects. Closing date: May 31, 2011.

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